约翰•肯尼迪总统图书馆|JFK Presidential Library| I.M. Pei

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历经九年之久,经过约14位建筑师的角逐,约翰·肯尼迪总统图书馆终于在1979年10月20日竣工了。建筑师贝聿铭用具有代表性混凝土、钢筋和玻璃几何形体构建出这座建筑,准确地传达出庄严而又具有纪念意义的氛围。空间、光线和清晰明朗的交通流线交织在一起,让参观者按时间顺序了解约翰·肯尼迪的生平。

早在1963年,约翰·肯尼迪总统就为总统图书馆和博物馆的选址进行考察,并打算用自己的名字为其命名。当时美国已经有四座其他总统图书馆,但肯尼迪想要更加强化和更方便公众出入的体系。肯尼迪的宏伟计划包括建设大型档案室,与教育机构合作(毫无疑问是与他的母校哈佛大学合作)并展示自己开放的统治政策。

After a nine year process and fourteen possible architects the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library was finally finished and dedicated on October 20, 1979. Architect I.M. Pei’s signature geometric shapes of concrete steel and glass created an appropriate stately monumentality. A juxtaposition of spaces and light quality along with a defined and lucid circulation creates a logical story line of its namesake.

在此次考察过后的一个月,肯尼迪总统就遇刺了。事后不久,以杰奎琳·肯尼迪为首的委员会开始寻找建筑师。候选建筑师包括路易斯·康、密斯·凡·德·罗、阿尔瓦·阿尔托、弗兰克·阿比尼、卢西奥·科斯塔和五位当时还不太出名的来自世界各地的建筑师,其中就包括贝聿铭。除了资质和知名度,杰奎琳·肯尼迪更看重潜质和创造力,因此,她选择了贝聿铭。

In 1963, then President John F. Kennedy viewed possible sites for a presidential library and museum to be built in his name. At the time there were only four other presidential libraries and yet Kennedy sought a stronger and more accessible system. Kennedy’s grand plans included vast archives, educational collaboration (in this case his alma mater Harvard) and an open door policy to his presidency.

在进程再三停滞和拖延后,将建筑建在肯尼迪总统原先选定的场地上很快就不具有可行性了。很快,新场地就选定在哥伦比亚角,紧邻马萨诸塞大学波士顿分校的海港校区。充满活力的新场地占地9.5英亩,并可以欣赏波士顿港和天际线的景色,这两点是场地引以为傲之处。

A month after the visit President Kennedy was assassinated. Shortly after the event a committee headed by Jacqueline Kennedy began a search for architects. The impressive list included Louis Kahn, Mies van der Rohe, Alvar Aalto, Franco Albini, Llucio Costa, and five other relatively unknown architects from around the world including I.M. Pei. Despite the credentials and name recognition of the other architects Jacqueline Kennedy saw a potential and creativity in the architect she had chosen, I.M. Pei.

结构的主体是一个精妙绝伦三棱竖体,它矗立在由几何形体构成的大面积基座上。紧邻三棱竖体是的玻璃和钢结构的立方体,通高的中空空间肃穆庄严,这种空间感唤起人们对肯尼迪总统的追思。

The original site that President Kennedy had selected quickly became unrealistic after it had been repeatedly bogged down with processes and delays. A new site was quickly selected at Columbia Point, adjacent to the Harbor Campus of the University ofMassachusetts Boston. The dynamic new site boasted 9.5 acres and views of the Boston Harbor and skyline.

 

游客在交通流线的引导下通过大量的纪念品和文献来回顾这位已故总统的生平和政治生涯。走出相对狭小的空间,接下来游客进入一个黑暗并相对密闭的空间,在这里观赏介绍肯尼迪生平的电影。指定交通流线的终端给游客带来全新的空间体验。一改之前的局促感,中空的大型开放立方体激发了游客的感触,冲击着他们的情感。通过简单的玻璃和钢结构幕墙就可以感知建筑与外部世界,与这个国家的内在联系,肯尼迪总统将整个政治生涯都奉献给这个国家。

The main body of the structure consists of a singular and brilliant triangular tower protruding from an expanding base of geometric forms. A cube of glass and steel rises along with the tower; hollowed and hallowed it represents reflection on void. A circulatory system leads the viewer through a relatively dense memorial and archive of the life and political career of the late president. This constrained experience is followed by a dark yet still relatively confined space of the theater where the occupant is shown a brief biographical film. From these tight spaces a new form emerges at the end of the defined path. A large, aerated, open cube volume allows for a period of reflectance. The visceral connection with the outside world and the home state which President Kennedy dedicated his political life to is tangible through a simplified glass and steel curtain.

 

图书馆坐落在半岛端部,结构宏伟,构成形式低调而又常见。它依海矗立,气度不凡。约翰·肯尼迪总统图书馆是一座纪念馆,建筑本身也是一座纪念碑。

The understated yet omnipresent form of the library’s stately structure at the end of the peninsula rises above the water with a distinguished manner. The JFK Presidential Library exemplifies architectural presence representing both memorial and monument.

 

建筑师:I.M. Pei
地点:美国马萨诸塞州波士顿市

竣工时间:1979
参考:JFK Presidential Library
摄影师:Daniel Cooper, Erinc Salor, Shanon Mollerus, Leon Pun, Albert Choi, Lorianne DiSabato, Flickr user: wildvanilla, Flickr user: straightedge

项目来源:I.M. Pei

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